difficult for the end user to understand the reasoning behind
them. Image credit – phylevn/Flickr, licenced under CC BY
Artificial intelligence is growing ever more powerful and
entering peopleâs daily lives, yet often we donât know what
goes on inside these systems. Their non-transparency could fuel
practical problems, or even racism, which is why researchers
increasingly want to open this âblack boxâ and make AI
In February of 2013, Eric Loomis was driving around in the small
town of La Crosse in Wisconsin, US, when he was stopped by the
police. The car he was driving turned out to have been involved in
a shooting, and he was arrested. Eventually a court sentenced him
to six years in prison.
This might have been an uneventful case, had it not been for a
piece of technology that had aided the judge in making the
decision. They used COMPAS, an algorithm that determines the risk
of a defendant becoming a recidivist. The court inputs a range of
data, like the defendantâs demographic information, into the
system, which yields a score of how likely they are to again commit
How the algorithm predicts this, however, remains
non-transparent. The system, in other words, is a black box â a
practice against which Loomis made a 2017 complaint in the US
Supreme Court. He claimed COMPAS used gender and racial data to
make its decisions, and ranked Afro-Americans as higher recidivism
risks. The court eventually rejected his
case, claiming the sentence would have been the same even without
the algorithm. Yet there have also been a number of revelations which
suggest COMPAS doesnât accurately predict recidivism.
While algorithmic sentencing systems are already in use in the
US, in Europe their adoption has generally been limited. A Dutch
AI sentencing system, that judged on private cases like late
payments to companies, was for example shut down in 2018 after
critical media coverage. Yet AI has entered into other fields
across Europe. It is being rolled out to help European doctors
And start-ups like the British M:QUBE,
which uses AI to analyse mortgage applications, are popping up
These systems run historical data through an algorithm, which
then comes up with a prediction or course of action. Yet often we
donât know how such a system reaches its conclusion. It might
work correctly, or it might have a technical error inside of it. It
might even reproduce some form of bias, like racism, without the
designers even realising it.
This is why researchers want to open this black box, and make AI
systems transparent, or âexplainableâ, a movement that is now
picking up steam. The EU
White Paper on Artificial Intelligence released earlier this
year called for explainable AI, major companies like Google and IBM are
funding research into it and GDPR even includes a right to
explainability for consumers.
âWe are now able to produce AI models that are very efficient
in making decisions,â said Fosca Giannotti, senior researcher at
the Information Science and Technology Institute of the National
Research Council in Pisa, Italy. âBut often these models are
impossible to understand for the end-user, which is why explainable
AI is becoming so popular.â
Giannotti leads a research project on explainable AI,
called XAI, which wants
to make AI systems reveal their internal logic. The project works
on automated decision support systems like technology that helps a
doctor make a diagnosis or algorithms that recommend to banks
whether or not to give someone a loan. They hope to develop the
technical methods or even new algorithms that can help make AI
âHumans still make the final decisions in these systems,‘ said
Giannotti. âBut every human that uses these systems should have a
clear understanding of the logic behind the suggestion. â
Today, hospitals and doctors increasingly experiment
systems to support their decisions, but are often unaware of
how the decision was made. AI in this case analyses large amounts
of medical data, and yields a percentage of likelihood a patient
has a certain disease.
For example, a system might be trained on large amounts of
photos of human skin, which in some cases represent symptoms of
skin cancer. Based on that data, it predicts whether someone is
likely to have skin cancer from new pictures of a skin anomaly.
These systems are not general practice yet, but hospitals are
increasingly testing them, and integrating them in their daily
These systems often use a popular AI method called deep
learning, that takes large amounts of small sub-decisions. These
are grouped into a network with layers that can range from a few
dozen up to hundreds deep, making it particularly hard to see why
the system suggested someone has skin cancer, for example, or to
identify faulty reasoning.
âSometimes even the computer scientist who designed the
network cannot really understand the logic,‘ said Giannotti.
For SenÃ©n Barro, professor of computer science and artificial
intelligence at the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain,
AI should not only be able to justify its decisions but do so using
âExplainable AI should be able to communicate the outcome
naturally to humans, but also the reasoning process that justifies
the result,â said Prof. Barro.
He is scientific coordinator of a project called NL4XAI which is
training researchers on how to make AI systems explainable, by
exploring different sub-areas such as specific techniques to
He says that the end result could look similar to a chatbot.
âNatural language technology can build conversational agents that
convey these interactive explanations to humans,â he said.
Another method to give explanations is for the system to provide
a counterfactual. âIt might mean that the system gives an example
of what someone would need to change to alter the solution,â said
Giannotti. In the case of a loan-judging algorithm, a
counterfactual might show to someone whose loan was denied what the
nearest case would be where they would be approved. It might say
that someoneâs salary is too low, but if they earned â¬1,000
more on a yearly basis, they would be eligible.
Giannotti says there are two main approaches to explainability.
One is to start from black box algorithms, which are not capable of
explaining their results themselves, and find ways to uncover their
inner logic. Researchers can attach another algorithm to this black
box system â an âexplanatorâ â which asks a range of
questions of the black box and compares the results with the input
it offered. From this process the explanator can reconstruct how
the black box system works.
âBut another way is just to throw away the black box, and use
white box algorithms, â said Giannotti. These are machine
learning systems that are explainable by design, yet often are less
powerful than their black box counterparts.
âWe cannot yet say which approach is better,â cautioned
Giannotti. âThe choice depends on the data we are working on.â
When analysing very big amounts of data, like a database filled
with high-resolution images, a black box system is often needed
because they are more powerful. But for lighter tasks, a white box
algorithm might work better.
Finding the right approach to achieving explainability is still
a big problem though. Researchers need to find technical measures
to see whether an explanation actually explains a black-box system
well. âThe biggest challenge is on defining new evaluation
protocols to validate the goodness and effectiveness of the
generated explanation,â said Prof. Barro of NL4XAI.
On top of that, the exact definition of explainability is
somewhat unclear, and depends on the situation in which it is
applied. An AI researcher who writes an algorithm will need a
different kind of explanation compared to a doctor who uses a
system to make medical diagnoses.
âHuman evaluation (of the systemâs output) is inherently
subjective since it depends on the background of the person who
interacts with the intelligent machine,â said Dr Jose MarÃa
Alonso, deputy coordinator of NL4XAI and also a researcher at the
University of Santiago de Compostela.
Yet the drive for explainable AI is moving along step by step,
which would improve cooperation between humans and machines.
âHumans won’t be replaced by AI,‘ said Giannotti. âThey will be
amplified by computers. But explanation is an important
precondition for this cooperation.â
Originally published by
Horizon – The EU
Research & Innovation Magazine | December 1, 2020
The research in this article was funded by the EU. If you liked
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